The 12th Amendment deals with the election of the President and Vice President. You may recall that Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution sets up the body that you remember (we hope) from your basic civics class: the Electoral College ("EC" for short). The 12th Amendment changed part of the EC's process. Rather than set forth the full text of the Amendment here, we'll give you the basics of the EC.
Under the original text of the Constitution, it's important to know four specific things:
First, state electors voted for two people (at least one of whom has to be from outside the state).
Second, the electors did not differentiate between President and Vice President in casting the votes.
Third, if the electors didn't reach a majority approval of a candidate (someone has to win a majority and not just a plurality of the vo…